C&P#42: cannabis for better orgasms + lessons on using psychedelics + eating well for your endocannabinoids
The FDA once again running away from the football
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Welcome to the 42nd edition of Cannabinoids & the People. This newsletter collects all the new cannabinoid science each week. You can check out last week’s issue here & if you haven’t subscribed yet, please do.
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My educational video of the week: How & Why to Use CBD & THC for All the Neurodegenerative Disorders
Also, every weekday on my YouTube Shorts, I post a new 1-minute video on a piece of cannabis research or answers to your questions.
In my EU segment for Weed Talk News on Pro Cannabis Media: 2 business stories & 2 Prohibition stories
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And as always, at the bottom there’s an album of the week &
The Living Glossary of Cannabinoid Terms.
Apparently, cannabis for better sex & a Mediterranean diet to get your beach body for it
A week of great review articles: the ECS in kidneys, cancer, hand surgeries, neuroinflammation & nano-CBD for your CNS!
For your MS, eating more fatty acids (they’re the building blocks of your endocannabinoids)
The worst thing for your collegiate academics might be your overuse of cannabis
A lot on psychedelics & wisdom from Indigenous use & the underground
Cannabis & the gut microbiome
Again, it’s unlikely for CBD to be converting to THC in your stomach
State legalization lowers opioid prescriptions & signs of alcohol abuse
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Best Of Cannabinoid Science...
Favorite CBD pharmacology chart of the week:
I’m going to make explaining this chart be next week’s Educational Video of the Week.
On statins dysregulating the endocannabinoid system by Travis Cesarone for ProjectCBD
In a survey of chronic pain patients, more than half using cannabis said it decreased their use of opioid & over the counter pain medications as well as a decreased use of physical & cognitive behavioral therapy
Use of Cannabis and Other Pain Treatments Among Adults With Chronic Pain in US States With Medical Cannabis Programs
According to this survey, cannabis increases sexual desire & orgasm intensity as well as the pleasure from masturbating
The influence of cannabis on sexual functioning and satisfaction
With the majority of respondents being female, the researchers hope that this might close the orgasm gap (similar to the mineshaft gap, but more dire).
In those following the Mediterranean diet for three years, they saw significant improvements in their weight, glycemic index & heart health that were correlated to changes in their endocannabinoid levels, though with the usual gender differences
Sex differences in endocannabinoids during 3 years of Mediterranean diet intervention: Association with insulin resistance and weight loss in a population with metabolic syndrome
In people who exercise & regularly use cannabis, 10 milligrams of THC had little physiological effects on their workouts
Edible marijuana and cycle ergometer exercise
But psychologically, many people reports how much cannabis improves the mundaneness of running.
While treating people for cannabis use disorder with large levels of CBD, these researchers found no problems with memory impairment or broader cognitive effects & at 800 milligrams per day it may have even improved working memory manipulation
Effect of four-week cannabidiol treatment on cognitive function: secondary outcomes from a randomised clinical trial for the treatment of cannabis use disorder
In college students, even more than mental health disorders, the best predictor of educational impairment is cannabis use disorder
Cannabis use disorder uniquely predicts educational impairment in college students over and above other mental health disorders
Bisexuals tend to use more cannabis than heterosexuals
Pot at the End of the Rainbow: Cannabis Use Among Sexual Minorities
(that’s actually how my Queer book ends…)
A review of nine studies on how cannabis affects the microbiome
Cannabis and Microbiome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
A review on targeting the endocannabinoid system for your audio & balance functions
Potential effects of cannabinoids on audiovestibular function: A narrative review
A review of the antitumor effects of CBD
A mini-review on anti-tumor effect of cannabidiol
Further evidence that it's unlikely for CBD to convert to THC in the stomach
The scientific controversy on the conversion of CBD into THC in the human stomach: Molecular modelling and experimental results compared
In a mouse model of sepsis (an extreme immune reaction to an infection), CBD suppressed the inflammatory cytokine storm & protected the heart & kidneys from injury
Cannabidiol Suppresses Cytokine Storm and Protects Against Cardiac and Renal Injury Associated with Sepsis
In a model of multiple sclerosis, omega-three fatty acids act as building blocks for the endocannabinoids that reduced the disease severity, suggesting adding dietary solutions to your treatment
Role of Omega-3 Endocannabinoids in the Modulation of T-cell Activity in a Multiple Sclerosis Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) Model
In a mouse model of pain, how CBG lowers pain via the CB2 & TRPV1 receptors
The antinociceptive activity and mechanism of action of cannabigerol
In a mouse model of constipation, the ability of the Traditional Chinese Medicine formula MaZiRenWan appears to help via its cannabis ingredient causing alterations to the gut microbiome related to inflammation
Cannabis sativa L. alleviates loperamide-induced constipation by modulating the composition of gut microbiota in mice
For treating COVID, a drug to inhibit the reabsorption of anandamide (similar to the ability of CBD to raise anandamide levels)
Anandamide Reuptake Inhibitor (VDM11) as a Possible Candidate for COVID-19 Associated Depression; a Combination of Network Pharmacology, Molecular Docking and In Vivo Experimental Analysis
1971: In a classic from the archives, how cannabis makes fighting fish less fighty
Effects of marihuana compounds on the fighting behavior of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens)
“The effects of marihuana extract and Δ9-tetrahydro-cannabinol on the spontaneous aggressive behavior of the male adult Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) were studied. The drugs were strong suppressors of the aggressive behavior; however, after 8–10 exposures the fishes developed tolerance to the drugs. Continuing the treatment up to 31 days did not induce any further modification in the behavior of the fishes.”
An evergreen note on reading restricted paper:
First stop for seeing if there’s a free version of a paper, use the Google Scholar Chrome extension (Mac version), Google Scholar itself or try ResearchGate.
3 other helpful browser extensions are: Unpaywall, Open Access Button & PaperPanda
For the infamous backdoor, use Sci-Hub – the pirated papers repository (Chrome extension here). This works better for older paper than the stuff that just came out.
For Twitter users, send a Tweet of the paper’s title with the hashtag #icanhazpdf. It works because people are beautiful(ish).
Finally, email the author. They’re almost always happy to oblige because, thanks to the predatory academic publishing system, they don’t make a dollar off of their papers.
the Headlines & Fav Articles
The big news this week: the FDA continues to be a bunch of head-burying cowards…
Since the birth of my first child 5 years ago, the Farm Bill put the FDA in charge of creating some kind of rules or guidelines for CBD & hemp extracts. She is now big enough for chapter books - but the FDA still accomplished absolutely nothing besides issuing a handful of warning letters to companies for health claims.
After the last months of hinting at a big announcement, it just dropped this week. And do you know what they said?
We refuse to do anything until Congress tells us what to do.
In the meantime, they leave a booming industry unregulated, prone to scams & hamstrung from being able to offer their products in the big box stores who are too scared of the regulatory uncertainty.
The FDA releases new guidance on developing cannabis based drugs
But frankly, I can’t find anything very interesting or useful in here.
Leafly does a deep dive into the death of Lorna McMurrey, a trimmer at Trulieve, & the results at OSHA & across the industry
In news surprising to the Air Force but not to anyone else paying attention to the modern world, their test program to grant cannabis waivers to THC-positive recruits is resulting in more second chances at enlistment than they expected
In very North Dakota news, the agricultural committee approved a resolution urging people to buy US flags made out of hemp - but one lawmaker worried about the smells that might be produced at a flag-burning protest
France’s Economic, Social and Environmental Council issues a proposal for the legalization of cannabis
Plus a testing of hemp flowers in France found almost half of them to be above the legal THC limit
Determination of cannabinoids content in light cannabis inflorescences sold in France
The War on Drugs & Prohibition
New York & Massachusetts file bills to decriminalize drugs
It's hard to overstate how important this step would be & what a victory it would be for social justice. The War on Drugs Is a racist horror show & a fantastic trampling of our civil rights.
An analysis of San Francisco police finds that they often claim to smell cannabis (which is legal) in order to justify the searches of Black people
SF is simultaneously the best & the worst. See my Queer book on how it birthed the medical marijuana movement during the AIDS crisis despite appalling political & police resistance to the medicine.
[hoping to have this book republished & back up for sale within two weeks!]
An analysis of legalization found that while it was associated with increased cannabis use & decreased alcohol use disorder symptoms, it was not associated with any other adult psychiatric or psychosocial outcomes
Recreational cannabis legalization has had limited effects on a wide range of adult psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes
A review of DEA data finds a link between cannabis legalization & the reduction of opioid prescriptions
Recreational cannabis and opioid distribution
A court allowed the dismissal of a hemp farmer’s lawsuit filed against the police that stopped him from transporting hemp plants on a plane
Are they legal or are they not legal? If he carried enough ethanol to kill an arena full of people, no one would blink.
An analysis of family court cases in England & Wales finds cannabis use portrayed as a negative mark against a parent
Parenting through the lenses of risk and othering: Constructions of parental cannabis use in child protection court proceedings
In hair drug tests, how the demographics & length of consumption alters THC concentrations & with the notable finding that bleaching hair really does lower levels
THC and THC-COOH hair concentrations: Influence of age, gender, consumption habits, cosmetics treatment, and hair features
Psychedelics, Plant Medicines & Other Psychoactives
[This isn’t a deep dive into all of the science of psychedelics like I do for the cannabinoids. If a newsletter with all the new psychedelic science would be of interest to your org, reach out to me]
On ethical principles of psychedelic use from traditional Indigenous medicine
Ethical principles of traditional Indigenous medicine to guide western psychedelic research and practice
On messages from spirits during the psychedelic experience
Do Psychedelic Trips Open the Door to Messages from God, Spirits, Transcendent Realities, or the Devil? Links with Attitudes About Psychedelics, Opinions About Legalization, and Interest in Personal Use
A review on the many arenas where we can learn more about the adverse effects of psychedelics
Adverse effects of psychedelics: From anecdotes and misinformation to systematic science
On the history of testing drugs on spiders
Lessons on the challenges of integration after a psilocybin retreat
Psychedelic integration challenges: Participant experiences after a psilocybin truffle retreat in the Netherlands
On using entheogens for enhancing spirituality
Entheogenic Spirituality: Characteristics of Spiritually Motivated Psychedelics Use
A guide to using music & guided imagery for psilocybin therapy
Music programming for psilocybin-assisted therapy: Guided Imagery and Music-informed perspectives
A review of the studies using psychedelics for the anxiety & depression of cancer
Psychedelics for Patients With Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review
The Plant & the History
The USDA launches a weekly hemp market report
On using hemp to pull copper out of a solution (an important industrial problem)
Copper Recovery from Aqueous Solutions by Hemp Shives: Adsorption Studies and Modeling
A review of cannabis taxonomy, use as a medicine & history (with timeline!)
Cannabis – A state of the art about the millenary plant: Part I
Clinical Studies & Surveys
In chronic cannabis users, during a discontinuation of their use, they showed no alterations to their central stress responses
Central stress response among deprived and continuing marijuana users and nonusers
basically, researchers thought that it would be easier to startle someone in withdrawal from cannabis - but it turned out this wasn't the case.
Also, a hearty thank you to all of the stoners who gave up weed for a while in order to be the victim of a bunch of laboratory jump scares.
In athletic training & physical therapy curriculums, not a ton of information about cannabis
Cannabis Content in A Cannabis Content in Athletic Training and Physical Therapy Curriculums in the United States
In adolescent mice exposed to THC, the alterations of the hormone ghrelin (a regulator of feeding behavior) did not lead to any significant alterations in anxiety-like behaviors
Impaired Ghrelin Signaling Does Not Lead to Alterations of Anxiety-like Behaviors in Adult Mice Chronically Exposed to THC during Adolescence https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/11/1/144
On the characteristics of cannabis vapor & how we must learn more about it to harness it better as a medicine
Vapor Pressure, Vaping, and Corrections to Misconceptions Related to Medical Cannabis' Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients' Physical Properties and Compositions
The Brain & its Diseases
A review on using cannabinoids against neuroinflammation
CANNABINOIDS AND NEUROINFLAMMATION: THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS
A review on using nano CBD for central nervous system disorders
Exploring the Potential of Cannabinoid Nanodelivery Systems for CNS Disorders
In a mouse model of traumatic brain injury, the alterations to the endocannabinoid system exacerbates problems at the blood brain barrier & causes more neural deficits, suggesting cannabinoids as a treatment
Altered endocannabinoid metabolism compromises the brain-CSF barrier and exacerbates chronic deficits after traumatic brain injury in mice
In a mouse hippocampus (memory center), short-term exposure to cannabis smoke did not alter this brain area but it did decrease learning & memory retrieval
Effect of Cannabis Inhalation on the Hippocampus of Male Wistar Rats
In a tissue model of Alzheimer's disease, anandamide & noladin ether (another endocannabinoid) lessened the aggregation of the amyloid β plaques
Differential Effects of Endocannabinoids on Amyloid-Beta Aggregation and Toxicity
In motor neuron cells, CBG increased the genetic expression for remodeling the skeleton of this cell & guiding their axons
Cannabigerol Activates Cytoskeletal Remodeling via Wnt/PCP in NSC-34: An In Vitro Transcriptional Study
Harms, Cannabis Use Disorder & Street Synthetics
In people with their first episode of psychosis, users of cannabis - and even more so, users of synthetic cannabinoids - had more severe positive symptoms, dissociative symptoms & suicidal ideation as well as a significantly worse recovery & global functioning after nine months
First episode psychosis with and without the use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: Psychopathology, global functioning and suicidal ideation and antipsychotic effectiveness
On the increase of children accidentally ingesting cannabis edibles
Pediatric Edible Cannabis Exposures and Acute Toxicity: 2017-2021
and a review of the emergency room visits for pediatric cannabis poisonings from 2019 to 2020
PEDIATRIC POISONINGS ASSOCIATED WITH INGESTION OF MARIJUANA PRODUCTS
Testing the toxicity of cannabis using the lethality to brine shrimp
Cytotoxic screening of selected Cannabis cultivars using brine shrimp lethality assay
Everyone talks about the children. But won't anyone think of the shrimp...
An analysis of how various synthetic cannabinoids move through the system
Metabolism studies of 4'Cl-CUMYL-PINACA, 4'F-CUMYL-5F-PINACA and 4'F-CUMYL-5F-PICA using human hepatocytes and LC-QTOF-MS analysis
Pain, Inflammation & Surgeries
For hand surgery, this review article suggests cannabis is safe & effective for the musculoskeletal & neuropathic pain
Medical Cannabis in Hand Surgery: A Review of the Current Evidence
In a mouse model of post-operative delirium, treatment might be possible by targeting the endocannabinoids of the prefrontal cortex
Endocannabinoid signaling regulates post-operative delirium through glutamatergic mediodorsal thalamus-prelimbic prefrontal cortical projection
The Immune System, Autoimmune Disorders & Pathogens
In a cellular model of rheumatoid arthritis, CBG lowered inflammation via the TRPA1 receptors
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cannabigerol in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cultures Are Partly Mediated by TRPA1
Using hemp leaves as antibiotics against E coli
Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Components against Escherichia coli from Industrial Hemp Leaves
Guts, Metabolics, Microbiome & Oral Health
A review focused on the endocannabinoid system in the kidney’s pancreatic islets (the source of insulin & a regulator of food intake & metabolism)
The function of the endocannabinoid system in the pancreatic islet and its implications on metabolic syndrome and diabetes
In dental stem cells, CBD lowered inflammation as well as increased bone regeneration
Cannabidiol Rescues TNF-α-Inhibited Proliferation, Migration, and Osteogenic/Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells
Hormones, Reproduction & Maternal Effects
Data from a public health study of pregnant mothers found that early cannabis use seems to cause its harms via the placenta
Early pregnancy cannabis exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes
A review of what's known about gestational exposure to both alcohol & cannabis
Alcohol & cannabinoid co-use: Implications for impaired fetal brain development following gestational exposure
Cancer & Chemo
A review of using the endocannabinoids against glioblastomas (the most aggressive brain cancer)
Endocannabinoids are potential inhibitors for proliferating glioblastoma multiforme
A review of using cannabis to treat melanoma
Phytochemical Constituents and Derivatives of Cannabis sativa; Bridging the Gap in Melanoma Treatment
In a mouse model of lung cancer, cannabis did not lessen the efficacy of the standard treatment pembrolizumab
The use of medical cannabis concomitantly with immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: A sigh of relief?
I made a video just this week about the importance of using cannabis for the symptoms of chemotherapy treatments.
On creating an alternative molecule to CBD for topical use, mostly because CBD is illegal in some places
8,9-Dihydrocannabidiol, an Alternative of Cannabidiol, Its Preparation, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Ability
On designing new cannabinoids with different chiralities (handedness)
Axially Chiral Cannabinoids: Design, Synthesis, and Cannabinoid Receptor Affinity
PS: For this week’s folk music of the Isles, the 1966 album ‘Bert & John’ where the Scottish folk musician master Bert Jansch combined steel-string guitar with the Englishman John Renbourn for one of the classics of Anglo-folk music.
The Living Glossary of Cannabinoid Terms
This is a running glossary of the basic cannabinoid terms. It will also function as the legend for the ‘neural ocean’ metaphor that I’m using in my graphic novel series on the endocannabinoid system based on Moby-Dick. You can watch a lecture laying out the full idea here - but the basics are that we treat the human brain like the ocean: deep, mysterious & chockablock with fish, molecules & feedback systems that we don’t understand.
Endocannabinoids are whales. Phytocannabinoids are elephants (because what is an elephant but a whale of the land?) and neurons are complex underwater cities where hundreds of fish interact.
The cannabinoids found inside all mammals & almost every other form of life besides insects
The Endocannabinoids System (ECS)
One of the most widespread signaling systems in the human body & brain - but only first discovered in the early ‘90s. Unlike most of the classical neurotransmitters, endocannabinoid are lipids, or fats. This makes them slippery, hard to study & a supremely sensitive signaling system because of the ability of cells to detect minute changes in lipid levels & act accordingly. Intimately connected to the immune system, the neuronal system & the hormonal system, as one old scientist said to me in his cups, “If you told me that the endocannabinoid system is where the body meets the soul, I’d believe you.”
Anandamide (AEA) [Our Great White Whale]
The first endocannabinoid neurotransmitter ever discovered. Widespread in the human brain & produced ‘on-demand’ when needed. Appears quickly, broken down quickly. Often called the neurotransmitter of balance.
[in our neural ocean metaphor, the sperm whale]
The second endocannabinoid neurotransmitter discovered. Only 2-AG & AEA have been well studied (thousands of research papers)
The first endocannabinoid receptor discovered. Mediates the psychoactivity (getting high feeling of THC). Most importantly, it’s the most widespread receptor of its class in the human brain.
[the bar in the membrane wall of the neuronal city where endocannabinoid whales meet with messenger fish to pass on their messages into the interior of the cellular city]
The second endocannabinoid receptor discovered. Found in almost every organ of the body & closely connected to our immune system. The CB2 occurs at low levels in the brain where it responds to neural insults.
[a gay bar in the membrane wall of the neuronal city]
FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase)
The enzyme that breaks down anandamide & a frequent target of drug discovery for modulating the endocannabinoid system. If you inhibit the FAAH enzyme, it does less breaking down of AEA, and your AEA levels rise. More balance.
[the giant squid that slices sperm whales in half]
Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL or DGL)
The enzyme responsible for producing 2-AG.
MGL (monoacylglycerol lipase - also sometimes abbreviated as MAGL)
The enzyme that breaks down 2-AG. Another frequent target of drug discovery because inhibiting MGL raises 2-AG levels
[a giant octopus that eats blue whales]
An endogenous fatty acid amide whose only reason for not being labeled as a classic endocannabinoid is because it doesn’t bind to the CB1 or CB2 receptor - but it’s a hugely important neurotransmitter found in every cell of the body. A long body of work stretching back to World War 2 has found it to be an amazingly safe & effective drug for a number of things related to the immune system. Available as a dietary supplement, this is one of the best-studied cannabinoids in humans. Highly recommended.
[North Atlantic Right whale of course. Just look at that grin…]
NAAA (N-acylethanolamine acid amidase)
The enzyme for breaking down PEA, with a special function as a messenger for pain & inflammation as well as in the control of obesity.
[a giant Giant Pacific octopus that eats Right whales]
An endocannabinoid related to sleep. They discovered it by keeping cats awake for 3 days & then analyzing their spinal fluid. You can buy it on Amazon. 2 scoops helps you to sleep while 6 scoops is a very pleasant psychoactive experience (Hamilton Morris has called it his favorite way to get high - which is saying something). It’s also worth considering for cancer treatment.
[Humpback whale, because it sings hippies to sleep]
Oleoylethanolamide (unfortunately, also abbreviated as OEA sometimes)
An analog of anandamide, this lipid acts via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) receptors on the cell’s nucleus. These alter genetic transcription, a powerful method of cellular control. In animal models, oleoylethanolamide causes them to eat less food & drink less alcohol. In roundworms, it causes them to live longer. For the orphaned GPR119 receptor (a receptor that might one day be officially designated as a cannabinoid receptor), it may be the native ligand (the thing that binds to it). It’s already identified as the native ligand for hypoxia-inducible factor 3α (HIF-3α). OEA also interacts with our histamines.
[Pygmy sperm whale. Not well known, a smaller cousin to the sperm whale]
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs)
These transport proteins move fatty lipids such as the endocannabinoids around the body. While still mysterious, they’re thought to move anandamide between membranes as well as transporting it to be broken down by the enzyme FAAH. Several types of FABPs exist in humans. THC & CBD bind to some of them. This may explain why endocannabinoid levels tend to increase after consuming cannabinoids. As the brain ages, the levels of FABPs decrease.
The cannabinoids produced by the cannabis plant.
THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Δ9-THC)
The well-known & well-studied molecule in cannabis that gets you high - and helps in a number of other fascinating ways.
[African elephant. Powerful, unpredictable, beautiful]
The cousin of THC that does not get you high but does a lot of the heavy lifting in why hemp has been such a staple of medicine since before recorded history. In most plants outside those bred for the recreational market, CBD is the most common cannabinoid. It binds to a wide swathe of receptors outside the endocannabinoid system including three serotonin receptors, two opioid receptors, a dopamine receptor as well as glutamate & GABA (the two most widespread neurotransmitters, the basic neuronal signals for excitation & inhibition, respectively)
[Indian elephant. sweet, gentle, you can work with it]
Known as the “mother cannabinoid”, CBG is the chemical precursor to THC, CBD, and the other cannabinoids in the plant. CBG occurs only at low levels in cannabis because it tends to be quickly converted to other cannabinoids. Binding slightly to the CB1 and CB2 receptor, it also inhibits the enzymes that break down anandamide and 2-AG, hence raising the levels of those endocannabinoids. CBG interacts with an adrenaline receptor (α-2 adrenoceptor) & a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A Receptor) as well as modulating the expression of glutamate, GABA, and dopamine via the PPAR receptors on the nucleus, controllers of genetic transcription. CBG is also active at the TRP channels involved in the sensations of temperature, pressure, pH, smell, taste, vision, and pain perception whose dysfunction are linked to neuropathic pain, inflammation, and respiratory disorders.
Surveys show patients reporting help for anxiety, chronic pain, depression, and disturbed sleep. In preclinical trials, it's been studied for eye pressure, gut problems, appetite modulation, blood pressure lowering, bladder control, oral care, muscle spasms, airway inflammation, arthritis, painkilling, and most notably for brain health and neuroinflammation. In adult neural stem cells, CBG increased their viability. The breakdown products of CBG have been shown to reduce inflammation via the brain’s immune cells.
[since it’s the first cannabinoid produced, it must be the wooly mammoth]
The third most common cannabinoid in the plant, it’s not well studied in humans despite a number of intriguing preclinical studies, especially as an anti-inflammatory and for pain. Nonpsychoactive, it interferes with the breakdown of AEA & 2-AG (leading to a rise in their levels) as well as interacting with the vanilloid receptors.
[Sri Lankan elephant. Little, sweet, not as well known as it should be]
CBDV is like CBD with a shortened tail (side chain). Also nonpsychoactive, it tends to occur at low levels in most cannabis cultivars. It’s known to be an anticonvulsant & is suggested for treating autism in humans & in animal models. The cannabinoid pharmaceutical company GW has it in their developmental pipeline as GWP42006.
[An Asian elephant with a short trunk]
(Easter egg: the first person to email me about this easter egg will get a free copy of my Queer book once I get it printed & up on Amazon soon…)
Δ8-THC (delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC8)
A more rare cannabinoid in the plant – but one with psychoactive effects. At the moment, the ability to source Δ8-THC from hemp makes it a ‘legal high’ that’s become a hot seller across the US. Of course, the usual legislative & regulatory backlashes are following. It’s been studied as a treatment for glaucoma, eye injuries & the nausea of chemotherapy. Most people describe it as a nice mellow way to get high.
[The forest species of the African elephant – smaller & more elusive]
A terpene that’s also a cannabinoid.
The terpenes of cannabis give the plant its smell. Also found in oregano, black pepper, lavender & hops, beta-caryophyllene has a spicy sweet woody smell. But unique among terpenes, this one also binds to the CB2 receptor, making it a dietary cannabinoid. It shows a potential for treating inflammation, pain, anxiety & seizures. The FDA has designated it to be GRAS (generally regarded as safe) & thus it can be safely used as a food additive.
[a terpene/cannabinoid that travels through the air? That could only be a flying elephant]
Nabiximols (ie Sativex®)
A pharmaceutical 1:1 CBD:THC spray produced by GW Pharmaceuticals. One of the first cannabinoid pharmaceuticals on the market, Sativex is an approved treatment for neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder & the symptoms of multiple sclerosis.
Epidiolex® (in the UK, Epidyolex®)
An isolated CBD formulation approved for treating the severe seizures of Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex. Produced by GW Pharmaceuticals, the doses tend to be incredibly high – hundreds or thousands of milligrams of CBD every day in young children. But even with that, the side effects tend to only be lethargy & stomach upset.
Dronabinol (ie Marinol® and Syndros®)
A synthetic form of THC for the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients & the nausea of chemotherapy. These tend to not be popular with patients because it’s a horse dose of THC with no modulation by the other molecules in the cannabis plant like CBD.
A synthetic derivative of THC approved for treating the nausea of chemotherapy patients.
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