C&P#54: CBD for severe mental health + cannabinoids for chemotherapy + Moby Dick the Cannabis!
UK cops giving away cannabis vape pens
Welcome to the 54th edition of Cannabinoids & the People, a weekly newsletter where I collect all the new cannabinoid science. You can check out last week’s issue here & if you haven’t subscribed yet, please do.
As always, here’s the Living Glossary of Cannabinoid Terms & at the bottom is the album of the week.
Last call for the Cannabinoids & the People Connection Board:
if you’re looking for work, a collaborator or some other connection in the cannabinoid community, send me 100-200 words of who/what you’re looking for & the best way to contact you.
Also, if you’re presenting cannabinoid or psychedelic research at a conference this year, reach out to me about a video interview with the American Journal of Endocannabinoid Medicine & get your work seen by 100k doctors.
It’s PPAR week!
Large amounts of CBD for someone in a clinically high-risk mental state
Rats tune in, turn on & drop out (plus a Harry Chapin reference. Thanks Dad!)
Reddit again as the central source of human knowledge (this time its psychedelics for stuttering & yoga for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome)
Protect your fish against heavy metal toxicity with hemp seeds (hint: prolly works for humans too)
For you neurochemistry nerds, new findings on anandamide acting via sodium channels & how the CB1 readers compensate for not having any TRPV1 receptors, oh my
There’s a cannabis strain named Moby Dick!
Dirty allegations against some large cannabis businesses…
While Ben of Ben & Jerry’s makes more wholesome business headlines
A request to spread the word
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My work this week:
In my EU report for Weed Talk News: on 4/20, Finland’s cannabis citizen’s initiative passes + German pot doc busted
The Graphic Novels I Should Be Writing Series...
Chapter 3: Travelin' Kids (on my favorite cannabis writer)
for the neurodivergent: 'Gerald McBoing-Boing' by Dr Seuss & Temple Grandin + Evolution (& God) Loves Queers! + Inner Fire Craziness / Tibetan Tumo Training + Mental Transmutation: Ch 3 of the Kybalion + Clarence Jordan's 'Cotton Patch Parables of Liberation'
(I link to YouTube for accessibility, but find me on TT @lexpelgerandhisbooks)
My platforms: Linktree
YouTube for educational videos, lectures & shorts on new cannabinoid science
Anandamide; or, the People: my graphic novel series on cannabis, the endocannabinoid system & the War on Drugs based on Moby-Dick
LinkedIn, Twitter & my TikTok on books, hermeticism, science & history
Sponsor: PlusCBD & a commitment to education & research
One sign of a great CBD company is when they go to the next level for educating their customers. PlusCBD has articles for all levels of knowledge, videos about how CBD works & a YouTube channel of great educational content.
(Plus, they even sponsored two seasons of my podcast ‘The Lex Files’)
In addition, they’ve done more peer-reviewed research than any other company other there. They put their money down to advance the field.
Check out this (partial) bibliography:
A GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) study on hemp extracts to prove their safety
A clinical trial on healthy people to show that hemp extracts helped their cholesterol, sleep quality, stress response & perceived life pleasure
A post-marketing safety study where experts went over 2 years of PlusCBD’s adverse event reports to find the high safety levels
A case series of using CBD to treat PTSD
And funding me to create the extensive cannabinoid science archive at CVResearch.info
PlusCBD takes their commitment to education & research to the next level. And they do the same with their products.
Buy excellent CBD products today from PlusCBDoil.com.
Best Of Cannabinoid Science...
Great piece on CBD activating the PPAR nuclear receptors by Nate Seltenrich
In this case, he’s talking about glucose metabolism – but the huge impact of the PPAR is likely a larger factor in the therapeutic effects of CBD (& the other cannabinoids) than we currently know.
Patent on PEA & MEAI (an alcohol replacement drug) for the treatment of depression (hattip to Stuart Tomc)
In a case report of a clinically high-risk mental state individual being treated with 600 milligrams of CBD per day for a month, their clinical improvements seem to be because of better cerebral glucose utilization, possibly via the PPAR nuclear receptors
Cannabidiol enhances cerebral glucose utilization and ameliorates psychopathology and cognition: A case report in a clinically high-risk mental state
In an excellent use of scraping Reddit, this analysis of posts on cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome points to triggers & treatments not often mentioned in the scientific literature
An analysis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome Reddit posts and themes
“Reddit posts for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome provide a valuable source of community discussion and individual reports of people experiencing cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Mental health and alcohol were frequently reported triggers within the posts but are not often identified in the literature. While many of the therapies mentioned are well documented, behavioral responses such as meditation and yoga have not been explored by the scientific literature.”
In a related chart review, they find that it’s worth trying 50 mg of Benadryl & 10 mg of Compazine for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome
Hyperemesis Cannabinoid Syndrome Chart Review
Unsurprisingly, your first experience with alcohol or cannabis can help to predict your likelihood of a substance use disorder
Can initial experiences with drugs predict future drug abuse risks?
As the great Russian drug writer Viktor Pelevin says, your first good experience of drugs or sex will forever flavor the rest.
In young cannabis users who experienced a stroke, they found a significant relationship between cannabis use & atherosclerotic stroke (strokes caused by the hardening of arteries)
Stroke phenotype in cannabis users among young adults with ischemic stroke
In the joints of horses, they had CB1, CB2, TRPV1 & GPR55 receptors, suggesting the targeting of them for inflammation
Expression of cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and cannabinoid-related receptors (TRPV1, GPR55, and PPARα) in the synovial membrane of the horse metacarpophalangeal joint
Turns out that CBD also stands for common bile duct stone
Development of clinical prediction rule for the requirement of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) on endoscopic CBD stone clearance
A review on treating the negative side effects of chemotherapy with cannabinoids
Cannabinoids to Fight Chemotherapy-Induced Adverse Effects
I mean, I assume you’ve gotten the memo, but if someone is going through chemo, it’s crazy to not try some cannabinoids to help them feel better.
A general review article on why targeting the PPAR nuclear receptors (which turn genes on & off) is important for treating neuropsychiatric disease
The Strategy of Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders
The cannabinoids hugely target the PPAR receptors. In our Neural Ocean metaphor, those receptors are the bureaucrats down at City Hall who turn on & off everything in the neuronal city.
On the endocannabinoid system & breathing (hattip to Kat Villaverde)
The endocannabinoid system and breathing
In a mouse model of the neuropathic pain of chemotherapy, CBD combined well with mitragynine (the active ingredient of kratom) to lower several measures of pain & touch sensitivity
Cannabidiol And Mitragynine Exhibit Differential Interactive Effects In The Attenuation Of Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia, Acute Antinociception, And Schedule-Controlled Responding In Mice
Kratom is the last of the legally available plant medicines in the US that work as a painkiller. However, the DEA has been on a hunt for them for quite a while. When they last tried to ban them, the outcry from the public was so strong that they were forced to back down.
That's not to say kratom cannot be addictive, but as someone who hates the War on Drugs & believes in people's right to alter their own consciousness & body as long as they harm no others, it's an abomination to ban this plant that helps so many people.
In a mouse model of the neuropathic pain of chemotherapy, CBD lowered the pain via activation of the endocannabinoid system & the Toll-like receptors in the spinal cord
Cannabidiol prevents chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain by modulating spinal TLR4 via endocannabinoid system activation
In a rat model of PTSD, inhibition of the FAAH enzyme (a function of CBD) reduced their anxious behaviors
Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition alleviates anxiety-like symptoms in a rat model used to study post-traumatic stress disorder
An evergreen note on reading restricted papers:
First stop for seeing if there’s a free version of a paper, use the Google Scholar Chrome extension (Mac version), Google Scholar itself or try ResearchGate.
Three other helpful browser extensions are: Unpaywall, Open Access Button & PaperPanda
For the infamous backdoor, use Sci-Hub – the pirated papers repository (Chrome extension here). This works better for older paper than the stuff that just came out.
For Twitter users, send a Tweet of the paper’s title with the hashtag #icanhazpdf. It works because people are beautiful(ish).
Finally, email the author. They’re almost always happy to oblige because, thanks to the predatory academic publishing system, they don’t make a dollar off of their papers.
the Headlines & Fav Articles
RIP Harry Belafonte: hero of many things, including drug reform
He’s also the album of the week at the bottom of this newsletter.
In some bullshit, US Olympic long jumper Tara Davis-Woodhall had her national title stripped after testing positive for cannabis
Delaware legalizes adult-use cannabis, but not homegrown (the most important part IMHO)
“Under the law, a 15% tax will be applied to adult-use cannabis sales and the state will license up to 30 dispensaries, 30 manufacturers, 60 cultivators, and five testing labs. Sales are not expected to commence in the state until August 2024. The bills do not include home grow provisions.”
Three new polls show strong majority in US support cannabis legalization
not that that matters
A white paper on cannabis equity initiatives: expungement, licenses for victims of the Drug Wars, tax revenue for equity
Cannabis Equity Initiatives: Progress, Problems, and Potentials
The value of hemp for farmers dropped 71% in the last year & the industry blames the FDA for sticking their head in the sand on CBD regulations
According to Marijuana Moment,
floral hemp production fell 66%
grain hemp dipped 44%
fiber hemp declined by 34%
seed hemp plummeted 92%
hemp clones/transplants were down 94%
Tennessee adds a state song called ‘Copperhead Road’ by Steve Earle about a Vietnam vet growing cannabis
But the state continues to keep the plant itself illegal.
Cannabis AI chatbot launches to provide education
I gave it a whirl – but it’s not replacing me yet.
However, one day, as its powers grow, I’ll feed it my Neural Ocean metaphor & together we’ll conquer the world!
Kevin Smith said he stopped smoking marijuana because it numbed him & prevented him from processing negative thoughts (via Marijuana Moment)
History Corner: The Gentleman Smugglers of North Carolina in ‘70s
In the UK, the police are trialing a pilot where they give cannabis vape pens to medical patients in public housing to reduce the smell of cannabis in the building
A German judge/social media star strongly objects to the criminalization of cannabis
The War on Drugs & Prohibition
An intriguing analysis from Australia on various drug policies finds that decriminalization saves money or even makes money for the government
The savings associated with decriminalization of drug use in New South Wales, Australia: A comparison of four drug policies
The American Pharmacists Association endorses decriminalization of all drugs
A county-level analysis of cannabis laws in the US shows that medical cannabis is linked to higher rates of opioid & benzodiazepine related deaths while adult-use cannabis laws is linked to lower rates of those deaths
Changes in opioid and benzodiazepine poisoning deaths after cannabis legalization in the US: A county-level analysis, 2002-2020
Sometimes the findings from these public health data analyses are just confusing.
Singapore executes a man for his involvement in a 2-pound cannabis deal
Headline of the week: ‘A drug dealer gave a one-star review to an Uber Eats rider who took a suspicious package to police. It turned out to be meth in a toothpaste tube
Business & Law
The mischief at La Mota, the second largest dispensary chain in Oregon, & an examination of how much oversight the cannabis licensing agencies should have
“Révoal says La Mota’s situation has renewed questions about what authority the OLCC [Oregon Liquor and Cannabis Commission] has over licensees—and if it’s enough: “How far can we look, legally, morally?...That’s a top-of-the-line question, now, to ask. Should we be looking at this?”
A lawsuit against Cookies alleges self-dealing & millions in kickbacks
Ben from Ben & Jerry’s starts Ben’s Best Blnz, a nonprofit cannabis line to help right the wrongs of the War on Drugs
“The company says on its website that 80% of its profits will go to grants for Black cannabis entrepreneurs while the rest will be equally divided between the Vermont Racial Justice Alliance and the national Last Prisoner Project, which is working to free people incarcerated for cannabis offenses.”
An analysis of alcohol & tobacco companies in the cannabis space by Mitchell Osak
Google loosens their CBD advertising rules
On the potential occupational hazards of respiratory disease in cannabis production workers
The Emerging Spectrum of Respiratory Diseases in the U.S. Cannabis Industry
An analysis of changes in vape shop sales in six U.S. cities over the last few years
Changes in the Point-of-Sale Among Vape Shops in 6 US Metropolitan Areas Over Time, 2018-2021
On the various scams in the cannabis business world: pump & dump, burner licenses, bank fraud
Psychedelics, Plant Medicines & Other Psychoactives
In Oregon, the Health Authority issues the first ever psilocybin testing laboratory license
An interview with Dr. John Kelly on the little we know about psychedelics & the gut microbiome
The Psychoactive Research
[This isn’t a deep dive into all of the science of psychedelics & other psychoactives like I do for the cannabinoids. If a newsletter with all that new science would be of interest to your company or organization, reach out to me]
Yes, finally, a new survey about the drugs people are taking at nightclubs & festivals in NYC
Trends in drug use among nightclub and festival attendees in New York City, 2017-2022
I love this stuff. Especially because
a. I don’t get to sit down with partiers & Burners much anymore & discuss current drug trends
b. Scientists who do research like this are almost always out at those same clubs anyway & that’s how they know where to go & what to ask… 1. so while I don’t know any of these researchers personally, I suspect that I’d like to…
“Between 2017 and 2022, there were increases in past-year and past-month use of shrooms (psilocybin), ketamine, poppers (amyl/butyl nitrites), synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"), and novel psychedelics (lysergamides and DOx series), increases in past-year cannabis use, and increases in past-month use of 2C series drugs. Between 2017 and 2022, there were decreases in past-year heroin use and decreases in past-month cocaine use, novel stimulant use, and nonmedical benzodiazepine use.”
In an analysis of Reddit posts from people who stutter, 75% reported positive effects from psychedelics
Self-reported effects of classic psychedelics on stuttering
“Nearly 60% of participants indicated positive behavioral change (e.g., reduced stuttering, increased speech control), 40% reported positive emotional benefit, 15% reported positive cognitive changes, 12% reported positive effects on beliefs, and 7% indicated positive social effects. Approximately 10% of participants reported negative behavioral effects (e.g., increased stuttering, reduced speech control).”
How DMT moves through the human body & brain after a slow IV infusion
Pharmacokinetics of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Humans
A clinical analysis of how LSD changes the brain’s functional & effective connectivity
The effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on whole-brain functional and effective connectivity
A survey of how Canadians are using psychedelics
The Canadian Psychedelic Survey: Characteristics, Patterns of Use, and Access in a Large Sample of People Who Use Psychedelic Drugs
The Plant & the History
Growing & Farming
A study of the effect of age on cannabinoid content, trichome development & morphology
Glandular trichome development, morphology, and maturation are influenced by plant age and genotype in high THC-containing cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) inflorescences
And one of the cannabis types they studied was Moby Dick!
An analysis of different light quality conditions on hemp growth & a theoretical basis for light quality control in industrial hemp
Differential protein response to different light quality conditions of industrial hemp cultivation based on DIA technology
In hemp, fertilization increased growth but not cannabinoid yield while also enhancing the growth of weeds. The application of herbicides decreased the biomass of both the weeds & the hemp
Effect of Fertilization and Weed Management Practices on Weed Diversity and Hemp Agronomic Performance
The effect of nitrogen & potassium fertilizers on hemp yield & cannabinoid concentrations
Hemp yield and cannabinoid concentrations under variable nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates
On the many uses of hemp flour
Hemp flour, from waste to nutritional and nutraceuticals reuse
Using hemp seeds to protect fish against copper-induced toxicity
Therapeutic Role of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Against Copper-Induced Toxicity in Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala
“Interestingly, all the altered parameter of blood, serum, liver function tests, and antioxidant enzymes (in different organs) because of copper toxicity were successfully reverted to normal level in hemp seed oil (HO) and hemp seed (HS)-supplemented fed groups of both species. In conclusion, hemp seed supplementation showed significant (P < 0.05) improved results against copper toxicity. Thus, it could be recommended as an animal feed ingredient for its therapeutic role.”
A review of the utility of hemp fiber for India
Cannabis sativa: Industrial Hemp (fiber-type)-An emerging opportunity for India
For institutions who care for older adults, the policy considerations for implementing medical cannabis safely
Institutional policy consideration for medical cannabis
From India, a review on the history & current research on cannabis use
A Review of Historical Context and Current Research on Cannabis Use in India
A survey of cannabis use & prohibition in Brazil
Use of Marijuana to Promote Well-Being: Effects of Use and Prohibition in the Daily Lives of Brazilian Adults
On what's known about the semi-synthetic cannabinoid hexahydrocannabinol (HHC)
The semisynthetic cannabinoid Hexahydrocannabinol (HHC)
As I reported for Weed Talks News this week, Finland recently moved to ban HHC & Sweden will probably soon follow suit.
Mental Health, Sleep & Substance Use Disorders
In those with substance use disorder, attending religious services was associated with a slower progression from substance initiation to heavy use
The Impact of religiosity/spirituality on slowing the progression of substance use: Based on the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III)
A negative review of the impact of cannabinoids on cognition
Cannabinoids impact on cognition: A review from the neurobiological perspective
“Evidence was found that cannabinoids, the active substance in Cannabis, negatively impact short-term memory, working memory, and decision-making. Likewise, cannabinoids affect attention and the interaction between cognitive events and emotion.”
I mean, they’re not wrong, but my reward every week for getting this newsletter done is going into the basement & causing impacts to my cognition.
In adolescent & adult male rats, long-term exposure to THC changed their cognitive & motivational processes that regulate the pursuit of rewards
Long-term effects of THC exposure on reward learning and motivated behavior in adolescent and adult male rats
<cue short video of rats tuning in, turning off & dropping out>
<then cue long angsty novel of their journey to becoming another concrete castle king>
In mice with depression from chronic pain, inhibiting the MAGL enzyme (which raises the levels of 2-AG) reduced pain via the CB1 receptors of the dorsal root ganglion (brain region near the spine that transmits pain signals)
Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitor Alleviates Pain Transiently Via Peripheral Mechanism And Pain-Induced Depression Long-Term Via Central Mechanism
The Brain & its Diseases
A review of the use of recreational cannabis in epilepsy
Use of non-medical cannabis in epilepsy: A scoping review
In teenage male & female rats, their prefrontal endocannabinoid synaptic plasticity develops differently but equalizes by adulthood
Sexually Dimorphic Adolescent Trajectories of Prefrontal Endocannabinoid Synaptic Plasticity Equalize in Adulthood, Reflected by Endocannabinoid System Gene Expression
In female mice, chronic vaporized cannabis caused changes to their prefrontal cortex as well as alterations in their gray matter microarchitecture
Chronic exposure to inhaled vaporized cannabis high in Δ9-THC alters brain structure in adult female mice
In mice microglia (guardian immune cells of the brain), exposure to the Aβ plaques of Alzheimer's disease caused them to produce double the amount of 2-AG as well as increasing levels of the CB2 receptors
Aβ Chronic Exposure Promotes an Activation State of Microglia through Endocannabinoid Signalling Imbalance
And in a related study, delta-8 THC protected against the toxicity of the Aβ plaques against the endoplasmic reticulum (protein synthesis & folding station of the cell)
Δ8-THC Protects against Amyloid Beta Toxicity Modulating ER Stress In Vitro: A Transcriptomic Analysis
Usually it's 2-AG that alters the excitability of the neurons via sodium channels, but in this case of these neocortical neurons, it was anandamide acting via the CB1 receptors to do the same
Somatic and terminal CB1 receptors are differentially coupled to voltage-gated sodium channels in neocortical neurons
In mice engineered to not have the TRPV1 receptors (vanilloid receptors that work closely with the endocannabinoid system), their brains compensated by increasing CB1 receptor density in some regions & reducing it in others
Effects of the absence of TRPV1 in the expression of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor in the brain
“A significant increase in CB1R density was observed in the retrosplenial cortex, and a decrease in the cingulate area, motor cortex, and cerebellum upon the constitutive deletion of the TRPV1 gene, supporting the hypothesis of a reciprocal relation between both systems, so the lack of TRPV1 could lead to compensatory processes affecting the expression and localization of the ECS.”
Harms, Cannabis Use Disorder & Street Synthetics
For people with insomnia from cannabis use, cognitive behavioral therapy via telemedicine helped to improve their insomnia scores
Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia to reduce cannabis use: Results from a pilot randomized controlled trial
On using a mobile app to reduce cannabis use
Development of Mobile Contingency Management for Cannabis Use Reduction
Hormones, Reproduction & Maternal Effects
In toddlers, prenatal cannabis exposure in the second or third trimester doubled the likelihood of scoring high for over-attention to visual stimulation
Prenatal marijuana exposure and visual perception in toddlers: Evidence of a sensory processing deficit
In lactating rats, a high-fat diet reduced the amount of anandamide & 2-AG in their milk causing their offspring to have more abdominal fat, and in the male offspring, to cause increased cannabinoid & dopamine signaling
Maternal high-fat diet decreases milk endocannabinoids with sex-specific changes in the cannabinoid and dopamine signaling and food preference in rat offspring
In mice exposed to the pollutant perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, CBD protected their heart cells from the damage of oxidative stress as well as bringing balance to the energy metabolism disorder caused by damage to the mitochondria (energy center of the cell)
Cannabidiol Alleviates Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis by Maintaining Mitochondrial Dynamic Balance and Energy Metabolic Homeostasis
In cardiac tissue, neither THC or JWH-073 (a common synthetic cannabinoid found on the street) caused cardiac cell death, though the JWH-073 had a greater potential for adverse vascular events because of its increased vasodilatory effect
Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and the Aminoalkylindole K2/Spice Constituent JWH-073 on Cardiac Tissue and Mesenteric Vascular Reactivity
A patient with throat cancer uses only one drug & cannabis to put it in remission
Locally advanced HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer cured with single agent pembrolizumab in a patient using cannabis: a case report
To kill breast cancer cells, combining CBD & the non-invasive technique of electroporation
Study on Cannabidiol and Pulse Electric Field on Breast Cancer Cells
A continuous flow synthesis technique for turning CBD into THC or delta-8 THC
Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Δ8-Tetrahydrocannabinol from Cannabidiol
An analysis of the cannabis enzymes that create the terpenes
Cannabis monoterpene synthases: evaluating structure–function relationships
PS: In honor of the great Harry Belafonte, here’s his first album, a collection of folk songs called ‘Mark Twain and other Folk Favorites’. You can hear all of his energy & enthusiasm & see why crowds would grow to love him. Rest in Peace you King of Calypso & Hero of Humanitarians.