C&P#64: CBD more bioavailable in full spectrum + microdosing THC for mature brains + CBD for athletes via microRNA
Luxembourg legalizes better than anyone else in the world + Phillip Morris buys cannabis inhaler company
Welcome to the 64th edition of Cannabinoids & the People, a weekly newsletter where I collect all the new cannabinoid science. You can check out last week’s issue here & if you haven’t subscribed yet, please do. Paid subscriptions are here:
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As always, here’s the Living Glossary of Cannabinoid Terms & at the bottom of the newsletter is the album of the week.
For those of you near Amsterdam, for Pride Week, I’ll be doing a Queer book reading & talk at the Cannabis College on Friday afternoon:
On the CVSI TikTok, we had our first hyperviral hit & it was on THC isomers.
1M views & 30k+ new followers in 3 days. A new path of canna-education has opened.
CBD more bioavailable in full-spectrum extract!
In older brains, microdosing THC for “remarkable long-lasting” cognitive improvements (buds for Algernon)
The help of athletes by CBD might be via microRNA (controllers of genetic transcription)
CBD has a strong anti-inflammatory than the pharma drug diclofenac
How your genetic variants might change your effects from cannabinoids
Lots of good work on correlating diseases to levels of endocannabinoids
Participants in cannabis clinical trials (young male bros) do not match the overall population of cannabis users (everyone)
A lot of psychedelic reviews, including for eating disorders
A request to spread the word
This newsletter only spreads by word of mouth – so please forward to colleagues & tell your friends & relatives.
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My work this week:
Canna-Education for CV Sciences (TikTok:@cvsciences):
the THC isomers mega-hit video
Cannabinoid Science Wednesday: exercise, bioavailability & brain protection
My platforms: Linktree
YouTube for educational videos, lectures & shorts on new cannabinoid science
Anandamide; or, the People: my graphic novel series on cannabis, the endocannabinoid system & the War on Drugs based on Moby-Dick
LinkedIn, Twitter & my TikTok on books, hermeticism, science & history
Best Of Cannabinoid Science...
A very practical study finds that joints made with smaller grains of cannabis have more potent puffs but those with larger grains lead to longer-lasting joints
Three raw cannabis smoothie recipes & the science of why they make sense
In a double-blind trial of people living with dementia, a 3:2 THC:CBD medicine was safe & well tolerated with a decrease in agitation & an increase in sleep
Examining the use of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-based medicine among individuals diagnosed with dementia living within residential aged care facilities: Results of a double-blind randomised crossover trial
Interviews with women with PTSD after sexual assault on why cannabis helped more than other medications, but the resulting feelings of detachment can be challenging
Using Cannabis to Cope With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Sexual Assault: Toward a Phenomenological Understanding
“The results of this research highlight the utility of cannabis for women coping with symptoms of PTSD, and the advantages of cannabis over other medications. Nevertheless, the main challenge with cannabis use in the context of PTSD is the feeling of detachment that it engenders. This feeling of detachment helps women to manage symptoms when they become unbearable but can also reduce their ability to be fully present in their relationships and everyday life, and increase feelings of self-alienation and helplessness.”
In people with anorexia nervosa, the relation between their endocannabinoid levels & functional connectivity in their nucleus accumbens (a reward center & regulator of feeding, stress & motivation)
Exploring the Influence of Circulating Endocannabinoids and Nucleus Accumbens Functional Connectivity on Anorexia Nervosa Severity
Unsurprisingly, the data on people who use cannabis does not well correspond to the people participating in cannabis clinical trials (who skew towards white males in their 20s and 30s)
Measuring the diversity gap of cannabis clinical trial participants compared to people who report using cannabis
People report both kratom & cannabinoids being effective for their chronic pain
Kratom Alkaloids, Cannabinoids, and Chronic Pain: Basis of Potential Utility and Role in Therapy
For athletes, a review about how CBD maybe helping via the microRNA (regulators of gene expression)
Major aspects of cannabidiol in the interaction with microRNAs and exosomes in the modulation of inflammatory and immunological processes in athletes: a systematic review
“CBD has been reported to exert a range of physiological, biochemical, and psychological effects with the potential to benefit human health. For example, there is preliminary supporting evidence for the anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and anxiolytic actions of CBD and the possibility that it may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with inflammation and promote the healing of traumatic skeletal injuries. The combination of Δ9-THC and CBD can alter the activity of microRNAs responsible for increasing the biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators, leading to a reduction in the inflammatory profile.”
For women with type 2 diabetes & depression, how to target their treatments to the female endocannabinoid system
Targeting the female endocannabinoid system: A CAM intervention addressing behavioral nutrition and treating depression in women with T2DM
A review of depression & its relation to the endocannabinoid system as well as potential treatments
POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM ON THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF DEPRESSION: MEDICAL TREATMENT APPROACHES BASED ON THIS SYSTEM
A review on treating Parkinson's disease by using cannabinoids on the inflammasome NLRP3 pathway
Neuromodulation in Parkinson's disease targeting opioid and cannabinoid receptors, understanding the role of NLRP3 pathway: a novel therapeutic approach
This NLRP3 pathway is not the most sexily named pathway in our skulls, but I see it come up again & again for helping with neuroinflammation, a hallmark of virtually every brain disease.
A review of how your genetic variants might alter your effects from cannabinoids
Genetic testing for cannabinoid use
A solid review on the use of CBD in dogs
Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of cannabidiol in dogs: an update of current knowledge
In rats, the oral bioavailability of CBD was superior when coming from a full-spectrum product versus isolate or broad spectrum
Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Commercially Available Cannabidiol Isolate, Broad-Spectrum, and Full-Spectrum Products
In rats, the anti-inflammatory effects of oral CBD were stronger than the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (an NSAID sold under the brand name Voltaren)
Anti-inflammatory effects of oral cannabidiol in rat models
In older mice, microdoses of THC caused remarkable long-lasting improvements in cognitive functions, especially in the hippocampus (memory center)
Hippocampal differential expression underlying the neuroprotective effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol microdose on old mice
Thesis project of the week: in a mouse model of social anxiety, CBD vapor improved their social interactions
Cannabidiol Administered via Vapor Inhalation Restores Social Interaction Deficits in a Mouse Model of Social Anxiety
In a rat model of endotoxemia (dead bacteria causing toxic inflammatory effects), THC protected the heart from inflammatory stress
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol conserves cardiovascular functions in a rat model of endotoxemia: Involvement of endothelial molecular mechanisms and oxidative-nitrative stress
A hemopressin peptide that promotes NREM sleep works via the CB1 receptor
An α-hemoglobin-derived peptide (m)VD-hemopressin (α) promotes NREM sleep via the CB1 cannabinoid receptor
A binding study of how CBD is inhibiting sodium channels (important for brain health & neuronal excitability)
Cannabidiol inhibits Nav channels through two distinct binding sites
An evergreen note on reading restricted papers:
First stop for seeing if there’s a free version of a paper, use the Google Scholar Chrome extension (Mac version), Google Scholar itself or try ResearchGate.
Three other helpful browser extensions are: Unpaywall, Open Access Button & PaperPanda
For the infamous backdoor, use Sci-Hub – the pirated papers repository (Chrome extension here). This works better for older paper than the stuff that just came out.
For Twitter users, send a Tweet of the paper’s title with the hashtag #icanhazpdf. It works because people are beautiful(ish).
Finally, email the author. They’re almost always happy to oblige because, thanks to the predatory academic publishing system, they don’t make a dollar off of their papers.
the Headlines & Fav Articles
A worker at Green Thumbs Industries dies after repeated hospitalization for breathing problems
There’s a whole new set of labor dangers involved in cannabis production that we haven’t even begun to wrestle with.
Meta to allow limited CBD & hemp ads on Facebook & Instagram
I hate this: regulators in Ohio get to decide that medical cannabis is legit for irritable bowels but not autism
Musings from lawyer Marc Hauser about Cookies starting to ship high THCA products to a dozen states
To be clear, all it takes is simply heating these items, such as by smoking them, to decarboxylate (convert) that THCA into levels of THC surely not intended by the framers of the Farm Bill.
To protest the federal 280E tax law that hamstrings cannabis businesses, MariMed staged a version of the Boston Tea Party
Recreational cannabis laws associated with increased binge drinking in adults over 31 & decreasing drinking in those under 21
Recreational cannabis legislation and binge drinking in U.S. adolescents and adults
History Corner: Remember, they found cannabis on a bunch of pipes at Shakespeare’s house
The “eager compound” indeed…
Luxembourg’s legalization law takes effect, allowing for personal possession & cultivation
This might be one of the best legalizing plans I’ve ever seen. No big corporations. No heavy-handed laws or overregulation.
Just 3 g for personal use & up to 4 plants. Nice & simple.
Canada to allow First Nations peoples to regulate their own cannabis production
Brazil to halt medical cannabis flower imports after weeks of denying rumors that it would do just that
A secret buyer quality assessment of 500 cannabis oils in Argentina
An assessment of qualitative and quantitative cannabinoids analysis in selected commercially available cannabis oils in Argentina
The War on Drugs & the End of Prohibition
Ugh: Arizona judge denies expungement for a man 5 years into a 16 year sentence for selling 1 ounce of cannabis
DEA celebrates its 50th birthday
Here’s praying that they don’t make it to 60.
12 California cannabis companies tied to fake unions could lose their licenses
Fuck: Phillip Morris acquires Syqe, the makers of a metered-dose cannabis inhaler
I always thought that Syqe looked like a great medical product.
What are the cannabis billboards of Oklahoma saying?
Outdoor Medical Cannabis Advertising in Oklahoma: Examining Regulatory Compliance and Social Meanings in Billboard Content
Psychedelics, Plant Medicines & Other Psychoactives
Good breakdown of who owns the psychedelic media companies & newsletters by Jules Evans
On the zaniness of xenon gas – the elemental psychoactive
Breath of God: Tripping on Xenon Gas
The Psychoactive Research
[This isn’t a deep dive into the science of psychedelics & other psychoactives like I do for the cannabinoids. If your company or organization would be interested in a breakdown of all the new psychedelic science, reach out to me]
A clinical study of taking psilocybin while still on an SSRI
Psilocybin for treatment resistant depression in patients taking a concomitant SSRI medication
Another brain imaging study finds less evidence for the entropy-lowering effects of psilocybin
Navigating the chaos of psychedelic neuroimaging: A multi-metric evaluation of acute psilocybin effects on brain entropy
Interviews of how people are integrating MDMA psychotherapy for treating their severe PTSD
Perceived key change phenomena of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of severe PTSD: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of clinical integration sessions
For eating disorders, a review of six psychedelic studies finds reductions in anxiety, self-harm, suicidality & problematic substance use while showing improvements in depression, well-being & changes in self-perception with some seeing full remission
Outcomes of usage of psychedelics by people reporting an eating disorder in clinical and non-clinical settings: a scoping review
On the considerations for using MDMA for PTSD in adolescents
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD in adolescents – rationale, potential, risks, and considerations
On the theory side of how psychedelics might cause false beliefs
The power of insight: How psychedelics solicit false beliefs
A review of psilocybin on cognition & creativity
Psilocybin's effects on cognition and creativity: A scoping review
A review of psilocybin trials showing its efficacy for anxiety, depression & improved quality of life
The Impact of Psilocybin on Patients Experiencing Psychiatric Symptoms: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials
A review of nine psilocybin studies finds its greatest efficacy for tobacco addiction, anxiety & depression related to life-threatening illnesses
Psychoactive substances in psychotherapy -A vision for the future? -A systematic review on Psilocybin
The Plant & the History
Growing & Farming
In medical cannabis, nitrogen deficiency increased the levels of terpenoids & cannabinoids
Nitrogen deficiency stimulates cannabinoid biosynthesis in medical cannabis plants by inducing a metabolic shift towards production of low-N metabolites
A comparison of two hydroponic systems on yield: recirculation vs drain-to- waste
Comparison of recirculation and drain-to-waste hydroponic systems in relation to medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) plants
For ground cover for outdoor hemp crops, clover seed & strip tilling of hay were more cost-effective than black plastic for weed suppression
Alternative Ground Covers and Strip-Tilling in CBD Hemp Production
In hemp, the relationship between biochemical traits & morphological features
Correlations among morphological and biochemical traits in high-cannabidiol hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.)
Horticulturalists gather to create standard definitions related to hemp production
Hemp Morphology and Physiology Standards for Research and Industry Applications
Ingestion Methods & Extraction Techniques
In hemp, the mechanisms of how CBDA decarboxylates into CBD & an analysis of the best temperatures & times
Mechanism and kinetics of CBDA decarboxylation into CBD in hemp
Hemp particles for anti-icing coatings
Hybrid Hemp Particles as Functional Fillers for the Manufacturing of Hydrophobic and Anti-icing Epoxy Composite Coatings
On using hemp to make better batteries
Pre-oxidation and catalytic carbonization strategies of hemp-derived multifunctional carbon for lithium-ion batteries/hybrid supercapacitors with high energy density and outstanding cyclability
For cement foam, an analysis of changes to strength & fire resistance by fiber dosage & alkali treatment
The ambient and elevated temperature performance of hemp fibre reinforced alkali-activated cement foam: Effects of fibre dosage and alkali treatment
A nice review of the benefits & risks of cannabis
Cannabis Unveiled: An Exploration of Marijuana's History, Active Compounds, Effects, Benefits, and Risks on Human Health
Adolescents & Pediatric
Apparently, the kids are smoking cannabis because they enjoy it or because it’s a coping mechanism
Why get high? Coping and enjoyment motives mediate elevated cannabis demand and cannabis-related outcomes
Apparently, youth who think cannabis is more dangerous use it less
Direct and indirect effects of cannabis risk perceptions on cannabis use frequency
Neurology & Brain Diseases
In patients in the early stages of multiple sclerosis, there were no significant alterations to their body’s endocannabinoid system
The peripheral endocannabinoid system and its association with biomarkers of inflammation in untreated patients with multiple sclerosis
In multiple sclerosis, a report summarizing the evidence for treatment via cannabinoids
CANNABIS, CANNABIS-BASED PRODUCTS, OR CANNABINOIDS BRIEF EVIDENCE REPORT: EVIDENCE FROM RECENT SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS ON THE TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
In a zebrafish model of neurotoxicity from aluminum, CBD & THC oils activated the chlorogenic nervous system for neuroprotection resulting in positive behavioral biomarker changes
Cannabis sativa-based oils against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity
Mental Health & Substance Use Disorders
Mixed results from Colorado on whether cannabis legalization altered opioid prescribing or opioid-related hospital visits
Impact of Recreational Cannabis Legalization on Opioid Prescribing and Opioid-Related Hospital Visits in Colorado: an Observational Study
In individuals with childhood trauma, their levels of anandamide related to their preference for affective touch & stress buffering
Endocannabinoid function and affective touch perception in trauma and non-trauma-exposed humans
and in people with childhood trauma or substance use disorders, 2-AG (& cortisol) levels were related to the extinction of conditioned fear
Endocannabinoid and neuroendocrine contributions to fear learning in humans
In people with schizophrenia, cannabis users showed no difference in the circulating inflammatory markers measured
Inflammation Markers Among Schizophrenia Patients Who Use Cannabis
For PTSD, a review of the role of endocannabinoids at baseline levels & in response to acute stress
Endocannabinoids and stress-related disorders: A systematic review of basal levels and responses to acute psychosocial stress
A review of treating cannabis use disorder by targeting the adenosine receptors in the cortical striatum
Targeting corticostriatal transmission for the treatment of cannabinoid use disorder
In a mouse model of chronic stress, the ability of exercise to reduce neuroinflammation & reduce depression was enhanced by inhibition of the CB2 receptor
Cannabinoid type 2 receptor inhibition enhances the antidepressant and proneurogenic effects of physical exercise after chronic stress
Female-specific, Reproduction & Hormones
A review of interventions for reducing the use of cannabis for morning sickness during pregnancy
Cannabis for morning sickness: areas for intervention to decrease cannabis consumption during pregnancy
A review of the clinical trials on pain
Gaps in our knowledge and future research on the endocannabinoid system and the painful phenomenon
On using AI & genetic analysis to help inform the treatment of chronic pain with cannabinoids
Supporting Machine Learning Model in the Treatment of Chronic Pain
The Immune System
A chapter on the antifungal effects of cannabinoids
CANNABINOIDS IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES
The Guts, the Microbiome & Oral Health
A review of oral health problems from cannabis & tobacco use disorders
Findings on potential associations of oral pathology with cannabis and tobacco use disorders – A brief literature review
A thesis project reviewing 7 studies on the ability of aerosolized THC to cause bronchodilation
The Therapeutic Bronchodilator Effects of Aerosolized Delta-9- Tetrahydrocannabinol for Patients With Airway Disease
“Aerosolized Δ-9-THC as a therapeutic bronchodilator resulted in inconclusive results. Various studies demonstrated therapeutic bronchodilation. However, several participants displayed bronchoconstriction after inhalation of aerosolized Δ-9-THC.”
Cancer & Chemotherapy
In hormone-dependent breast cancer, how the cannabinoids may be interacting with estrogen function & treatment
Heterogeneity in hormone-dependent breast cancer and therapy: Steroid hormones, HER2, melanoma antigens, and cannabinoid receptors
In canine & human non-Hodgkin lymphoma cells, cannabinoids exhibited significant anti-lymphoma effects
Validating the anti-lymphoma pharmacodynamic actions of the endocannabinoids on canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma
PS: For this week’s heavenly album, ‘Dylan’s Gospel’ by The Brothers & Sisters of Los Angeles, a cut of gospel-style covers of Bob Dylan.
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